The use of boilers to create high-pressure steam is still widely used. If it was used more often on steam-powered trains, more industries are now using it to drive high-pressure steam devices. One of the boilers currently in use is the caldera pirotubular. In a fire tube boiler, hot gas will pass through the pipe and the water in the shell will be converted into steam.

In operating a boiler, there are things that must be considered so that the boiler can work optimally. This parameter is also a benchmark if something is broken, it must be corrected immediately. One such parameter is the efficiency of boiler use. To see whether the design of a boiler has been precisely determined by several influencing factors, including the use of the boiler unit itself is whether the steam that must be produced is constant or varies according to the needs of the generator of the power plant. Furthermore, what determines also is the type and quality of the fuel to be burned: is it solid, liquid or gas. How much steam must be produced every hour whether hundreds or even millions of pounds per hour also need to be considered in the design?

The boiler heat absorption surface is designed for optimum efficiency and cost so that the four basic objectives of the boiler are achieved, namely:

– The dry steam produced has a high level of purity under any circumstances.
– Superheating of dry steam while keeping the temperature not exceeding the boiler operating conditions.
– Reheating of steam which the pressure drops to be reused by the turbine while keeping the temperature not exceeding
boiler operating conditions.
– Reduce exhaust gas temperature to minimize heat losses, control corrosion and produce emissions that do not exceed the provisions.

Thermal efficiency is an indicator of how well the heat input capacity of the boiler produces steam at the required temperature and pressure. The existence of economic principles and fuel costs make the powerplant must operate efficiently.